Teachers must help children to perceive themselves as writers before they are able to write for themselves. – Frank Smith
The world is not divided into the people who know how to write and those who don’t. – Philip Gross
As part of our ongoing work on building a Writing For Pleasure pedagogy, we have been reflecting on the second principle of our Writing For Pleasure manifesto:
High Expectations: Seeing Every Child As A Writer (2)
Effective writing teachers hold high achievement expectations for all writers. They see all children as writers and, from the first, teach strategies that lead to greater independence. They make the purposes and audiences for writing clear to children for both their class and personal writing projects. They teach what writing can do. They also promote the social aspects of writing and peer support in their classrooms.
What do you need to consider as a teacher to ensure you are creating an inclusive environment where all apprentice writers can flourish?
By reading, amongst others, Gadd’s wonderful work on what is critical in the effective teaching of writing, we are able to offer some questions that might be worth reflecting on below. If you’ve written about children being writers yourself or would like to contribute, you’re welcome to use the comments section below.
Finally, at the end, we have provided references which are great reading if ensuring every child is a writer sounds like something you’d like to learn more about.
How do you make children feel like writers in your classroom?
- Establish positive relationships with all learners (Burchinal et al 2002; Cornelius-White, 2007).
- Allow all children an opportunity to share, perform and/or publish their writing products (including class and personal writing projects) with their peers.
- Employ mixed-ability, interest-based groupings and opportunities for sharing and for the discussion of writing amongst peers.
- Believe that despite their circumstances, all children have interests, passions and idiosyncrasies which contribute to their funds of knowledge and that these funds of knowledge can be used by children in their writing (Dyson, 2003; Grainger, et al 2013; Leung & Hicks, 2014).
- Tend to believe more strongly than other teachers that all learners can achieve if they receive appropriate support from the teacher.
How do your class writing projects make every child feel like a writer?
- Plan writing projects to ensure children have some ownership and agency over their project.
- Provide opportunities to learn new material.
- Give all children challenging writing projects to undertake.
- Set up specific writing process goals that all children in the class can achieve.
- Monitor the expectations you communicate to learners on a near daily basis.
- Ensure a supportive and social learning environment in which to write (children who feel emotionally secure and can communicate effectively with their teachers are better able to devote their energies and attention to writing – Burchinal et al 2002).
Do you have any resources or strategies that help children feel like authentic writers?
- Provide writing strategies and helpful writerly advice through verbal feedback (pupil-conferences) to aid children’s writing.
- Provide instructional strategies and resources which promote self-regulation, greater independence and adoption of a personal writing process.
- Give access to high-quality writing examples and a rich classroom library.
How do you model writerly behaviour and how do you talk about writing with your children?
- Provide: smiles, head nods, positive body language, eye contact, friendliness, clue giving, repetition, rephrasing, more praise and less criticism to all children.
- Talk as writer to writer.
How could a mastery perspective towards writing make children feel more like real writers?
- See writing more as mastery through repeated practice and so give children more time, space and opportunities to develop their writing.
As a result of these types of interactions and expectations of children, Cornelius-White (2007) claims that teachers should see an increase in children’s participation, initiation into the writing community, satisfaction in their learning, motivation to write, higher self-esteem, and better social connections with their fellow writers.
What can people read to find out more about ensuring every child is a writer?
Growth Through English by John Dixon
A summary of a great meet up (before twitter meets existed) at Dartmouth between UK and US teachers in the late 1960s. This Dartmouth meet up looked to reflect on the teaching of apprentice writers and is an absolutely fascinating and thought provoking read in today’s context.
The Myth Of The Deprived Child by Herbert Ginsburg
A book which holds the highest possible regard and expectations of children regardless of their circumstances
Writing Voices: Creating Communities of Writers by Teresa Cremin & Debra Myhill
An absolute must read for anyone interested in creating communities and rich environments for writing to take place.
Build a Literate Classroom by Donald Graves
The gold standard of creating writers and a writers’ classroom! Only £1.17 on Amazon!
In The Middle by Nancie Atwell
A seminal text on creating a climate for writers to flourish – perfect for KS2 and KS3.
No More ‘I’m Done’ Fostering Independent Writers In The Primary Grades by Jennifer Jacobson
A perfect text for creating communities of writers in KS1/LKS2 – really accessible read.
Joining the Literacy Club: Further Essays into Education by Frank Smith
This text is a bit more heavy going but is infinitely fascinating and thought provoking
- Burchinal, M., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Pianta R., Howes., C (2002) Development of Academic Skills from Preschool Through Second Grade: Family and Classroom Predictors of Developmental Trajectories In Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 415 – 436
- Cornelius-White, J., (2007) Learner-Centered Teacher-Student Relationships Are Effective: A Meta-Analysis In Review of Educational Research, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 113–143
- Dyson, A., (2003) Popular Literacies and the ‘all’ children: rethinking literacy development for contemport childhoods Language Arts 81:100-9
- Grainger, T., Goouch, K., Lambirth, A., (2003) Playing the game called writing: children’s views and voices. English in Education, 37(2):4-15
- Gadd, M., (2014) ‘What is critical in the effective teaching of writing?‘ The University Of Auckland
- Leung, C., Hicks, J., (2014) Writer Identity and Writing Workshop A Future Teacher and Teacher Educator Critically Reflect In Writing & Pedagogy Vol. 6 583-60
- Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2010). Teacher expectations and perceptions of student attributes: Is there a relationship? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 121–135.