The Writing For Pleasure Manifesto

A Writing For Pleasure Manifesto

This weekend we were fortunate enough to attend and talk at The Oxford Writing Spree. It was a meeting of teachers, writers and writer-teachers who are passionate about the potential for a Writing For Pleasure pedagogy.

There was a fantastic range of people who spoke on this subject. These included, amongst others:

  • Nikki Gamble @nikkigamble
  • Teresa Cremin @TeresaCremin
  • Liz Chamberlin @liz_loch
  • CLPE (Louise Johns-Shepherd & Charlotte Hacking) @clpe1 @Loujs @charliehacking
  • Claire Williams @_borntosparkle
  • Martin Galway @GalwayMr
  • Tim Roach @MrTRoach
  • Ed Finch @MrEFinch
  • Arvon (Alicia Stubberfield) @arvonfoundation
  • Adam Guillain @aguillain
  • Pie Corbett @PieCorbett

To take this meeting further, we have produced a Writing For Pleasure manifesto. We would like to invite the community to respond to it. To stretch, expand, critique, question and champion the different aspects that have been included. This is so we can start conversations and build on the consensus that was beginning to form at the Spree. 

  • If you’d like to give an informal response to the manifesto, please leave a comment below.
  • Alternatively, please tweet @WritingRocks_17 to begin conversations on Twitter.
  • Finally, if you’d like a formal response to the manifesto to appear on this post please email us at literacyforpleasure@gmail.com This can be in the form of a document or a link to a blog post. We will make this response available here.

Please find the manifesto available to download below:

DOWNLOAD HERE —-> A Writing For Pleasure Manifesto

Happy Writing!

A Writing For Pleasure Manifesto

Introduction

As literate adults, most of us would have little difficulty in defining what we mean by reading for pleasure and indeed it is now a statutory part of the UK National Curriculum (2013). Cremin (2014) states: ‘at the core of reading for pleasure is the reader’s volition, their agency and desire to read, their anticipation of the satisfaction gained through the experience and/or afterwards in interaction with others.’ Although the act of reading is very often solitary, it is clearly also deeply social. So it is with writing. If it is true that young people who read for pleasure also tend to enjoy writing (National Literacy Trust 2013), then perhaps Writing For Pleasure can be similarly defined as a volitional act, undertaken with the anticipation of gaining satisfaction and/or enjoyment from effective communication with others.

Just like reading, the specific sources of enjoyment and satisfactions in and of writing must be many and varied, and will be different for individual writers in different contexts. If we examine what professional writers say on the subject (Cremin et al 2017), alongside Cremin’s (2014) definition of reading for pleasure, it could be argued that there are two types of pleasure in writing. Namely, writing as pleasure (enjoyment) and writing for pleasure (satisfaction).

What Might Writing As Pleasure & Writing For Pleasure Mean?

What comprises pleasure for a writer? This is not a simple question to answer. The specific sources of enjoyment (writing for and as pleasure) must be many and varied, and will be different for individual writers in different contexts.

The writing of a dissertation about a particular aspect of working-class children’s education in the late nineteenth century gave me immense pleasure over and above my usual satisfaction in chipping away at the sentences; I felt the writing connected me to my grandparents and their generation in an original and highly personal way. In another example, my colleague found pleasure in reliving, for the briefest of moments, a childhood adventure with his friends up on the South Downs and sharing it with his class. He hoped that the children would sympathetically understand why he felt the need to write it and would relate such feelings to their own lives, which indeed they did.

Writing as pleasure

Writing as pleasure is pleasure gained from practising the craft of writing, from engaging in the process, or at least in particular parts of the process, whether it be generating ideas, getting the words down on paper or screen, editing to perfection or publishing with care. Carol Joyce Oates and Ernest Hemingway both recorded that, for them, the pleasure was all in the revising. For some writers, writing as pleasure is where their writing pursuit ends and the idea that their writing may be seen by others can fill the writer with dread.

Writing for pleasure

This type of pleasure is the anticipated satisfaction, pleasure after the act of writing. It comes from a sense of purpose fulfilled and from the expectation of a response, in sharing something (knowledge, feeling, experience) with a specific audience, in reading back your own writing voice, in saying what you mean to say, achieving what you want the reader to feel. Or, as Alan Bennett recently said, in simply ‘talking to yourself’. However, as Gene Fowler clearly demonstrates too: ‘writing is easy: all you do it sit staring at a blank sheet of paper until the drops of blood form on your forehead…’ writing isn’t always pleasurable. So why do we put ourselves through it? Perhaps it is with the view of writing for the pleasure of a purpose fulfilled rather than the act itself.

Why The Need For A Writing For Pleasure Curriculum and Pedagogy?

There is no reason to suppose that children and young people cannot experience these same kinds of pleasures in writing. A recent survey conducted by the National Literacy Trust (NLT, 2016) makes it clear that for many years there has been a decline or stagnation in UK children’s enjoyment, volition and motivation to write both in and out of school; with 49.3% of children showing largely indifference or dislike for writing (NLT, 2017). Importantly, The National Literacy Trust also states that ‘eight times as many children and young people who do not enjoy writing write below the expected level compared with those who enjoy writing’ (2017, p.14). Graham & Johnson (2012, p.11), in a review of writing perceptions in their classroom, state that: ‘while 75% of the children demonstrated a positive attitude towards their reading experiences, only 10% of the same children described positive or happy associations in their writing memories. The majority of children within my class associated the writing experience with incompetence or anxiety; even those children who were perceived by me to be able writers did not consider the experience to be emotionally rewarding… Children who were competent in their literacy skills, who met their targets, who could write successfully in a variety of genres, failed to express any sense of joy in their written achievements’. With this evidence, it could be concluded that children are underachieving as a result of their dislike for writing. The NLT conclude by stating that ‘the findings highlight the importance of writing enjoyment for children’s outcomes and warrant a call for more attention on writing enjoyment in schools, research and policy’ (2017, p.15).

This makes sense with educational research consistently telling us that there are significant academic benefits to be gained alongside the personal and affective, with The National Literacy Trust (2017) stating that ‘seven times as many children and young people who enjoy writing write above the expected level for their age compared with those who don’t enjoy writing.’ According to research, the most important pointer to high attainment in writing is motivation/volition (Alexander 2010; Beard 2000; Clark 2012; Hillocks 1986; NLT 2016) and that the best motivator is agency (Au & Gourd 2013; Dyson & Freedman 2003; Ketter & Pool 2001; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Watanabe 2007). As defined above, agency, volition and motivation in writing have very clear links to the experience of pleasure.

In his review of 100 years of literacy research, Hillocks (2011) forcefully states, ‘we now know from a very wide variety of studies in English and out of it, that students who are authentically engaged with the tasks of their learning are likely to learn much more than those who are not’ (p. 189). However, evidence also suggests that historically too many students are underachieving (Ofsted, 2009, 2012), with ‘one in five primary pupils… not achiev[ing] the expected standard in English [with] far more pupils fail[ing] to achieve this standard in writing.’ With Ofsted (2012a, p.4) also stating that ‘only 69% of boys achieved national expectations in writing’ (Ofsted, 2012a, p.9) with ‘white British boys eligible for free school meals… amongst the lowest performers in the country’ (Ofsted, 2009, p.4). Further, ‘standards are not yet high enough for all pupils and there has been too little improvement in primary schools’ (Ofsted, 2012a, p.4). To end, Ofsted (2012b) remark that ‘writing is the subject with the worst performance compared with reading, maths and science at Key Stages 1 and 2.’ Again, this could indicate that many children are underachieving as a result of their indifference or dislike of writing (The National Literacy Trust, 2017).

A Working Definition Of A Writing For Pleasure Curriculum

Writing For Pleasure is any research-informed curriculum which seeks to create conditions that promote writing as a pleasurable experience. It has as its goal promoting a love of writing which will be continued into children’s personal and working lives long after they leave school. It involves:

Writing as pleasure (enjoyment)

  • Feeling a need to practise the craft of writing.
  • Feeling capable and empowered to engage with the processes of writing including talking about writing.

Writing for pleasure (satisfaction)

  • Having a sense of purpose fulfilled.
  • The expectation of a response.
  • Sharing something to be proud of.
  • The discovery of your own writing voice.

Writing For Pleasure therefore means the promotion of: self-efficacy, agency, volition, motivation, self-regulation, enjoyment, writer-identity and satisfaction in writing.

  • Agency will be ensured through the shifting of control from teachers to children, allowing them the time and the space to write for their own chosen purposes, at their own pace, using their own writing processes and in their own chosen forms. They will write on subjects they care about and be able to use their own cultural reference points, values and interests.
  • The importance of grammatical and transcriptional knowledge will be balanced by attention to composition, beginning with generating ideas and establishing an authentic purpose and personal writing process.
  • Writing will be seen as a highly social process, led by a writer’s desire and choice, with meaning-making at its centre and an awareness of the potential impact on a reader.

It will look to ensure an interconnection between the fourteen principles outlined in this audit leading to high levels of pleasure, academic achievement and success in writing.

The 14 Interconnected Principles That Make Up A Writing For Pleasure Pedagogy

We believe that there are many schools who subscribe to a Writing For Pleasure philosophy and need an evidence-rich pedagogy which will be instrumental in cultivating an enduring love of writing with academic achievement. The ambition is for children’s writing to match (both in composition and transcription) the standards of writing which are achieved out in the real world, and for children to experience the kinds of pleasure available to engaged adult writers through personal and artistic expression, effective communication and the possibility of making changes for themselves and others. The principles identified below are grounded in educational research on effective writing instruction, and are ones we have put into practice in a real working primary context.

Creating A Community Of Writers (1)

When writers see their teachers as positive, caring and interested in pupils’ lives, they are more likely to engage in writing at a high level of achievement. The aim is to create a community of writers, in which teachers write alongside children and share their own writing practices, and children are shown how to talk and present their writing to others in a positive and constructive way.

Every Child A Writer (2)

Effective writing teachers hold high achievement expectations for all writers. They see all children as writers and, from the first, teach strategies that lead to greater independence and ensure they remain part of the writing community. They make the purposes and audiences for writing clear to children for both their class and personal writing projects. They teach what writing can do. They also model and promote the social aspects of writing and peer support in their classrooms.

Reading, Sharing And Talking About Writing (3)

Children are given regular opportunities to share and discuss with others (including teachers) their own and others’ writing in order to give and receive constructive criticism and celebrate achievement. The writing community begins to build its own ways of talking, thinking as writers. This happens best when the writing environment is positive and settled in tone, and has a sense of fostering a community of writers.

Purposeful & Authentic Writing Projects (4)

Meaningfulness affects learner engagement and outcomes to a considerable extent. Writing projects are most meaningful to children if they are given the opportunity to generate their own subject and purpose, write at their own pace, in their own way, in a self-chosen form, and with a clear sense of a real reader. Given these circumstances, writers are likely to remain focused on a task, maintain a strong personal agency over their writing, and produce something significant for themselves and in keeping with teacher expectations.

Explicitly Teach The Writing Processes (5)

Effective writing teachers give direct instruction in the different components of the writing process (how to generate an idea, plan, draft, revise, edit, publish). They scaffold children’s learning and understanding of the process and the features (including purpose and audience) of new genres through demonstration, discussion, modelling and sharing exemplars which they have written themselves. Other resources, such as Genre-Booklets or displays, support the learning and help children towards independence. The ultimate aim is for children to relinquish their dependency on this scaffolding and develop their unique writing identity. For example, they should come to realize and use a version of the writing process which suits them best. They will also come to understand through their own independent writing that it is possible to create hybrids of different genres to serve particular purposes and audiences.

Scaffolding New Learning & Setting Writing Goals (6)

Setting distant goals through class writing-projects combined with short-term process goals (e.g. generating an idea/planning/drafting/revising/editing/publishing) benefits learners in terms of cognitive load, focus, motivation and achievement. The class as community should have a say in setting writing goals which explain what it requires for class-writing project to be successful.  Understanding strategies for each stage of the writing process also means that children can self-regulate and have greater independence and agency over their writing.

Reassuring Consistency (7)

Good classroom organisation is absolutely vital as it facilitates learning, ensures focus and builds writing confidence. It also saves time; time that can be used beneficially by the teacher and the children. Children need the reassurance of knowing how a writing lesson is expected to proceed. Teachers can plan to work with the whole class, groups or individuals (via conferencing). A well-organised classroom will direct children to the act of writing regularly and largely independently. For example, children will know the routines for working on class writing projects, and that once finished they may work on their personal projects. Resources will be visible, consistent across classes and the school and will communicate strategies clearly.

Personal Writing Projects: Writing Everyday (8)

It is essential that children are given time to write for a sustained period every day and to work on both class and personal writing projects. Personal projects should be seen as an important part of the writing curriculum since it is here, through exercising their own choice of subject, purpose and form, that they have true agency and come to see writing as an empowering and pleasurable activity which they can use now and in the future. It is also advantageous to the teacher as it not only provides an insight into your children’s personalities and helps build relationships, it is also evidence when assessing children’s development as writers.

Balancing Composition With Transcription (9)

Schools will have their own policies for the teaching of spelling, punctuation and handwriting. Studies emphasise that writing skills are obviously best learned in the context of a child’s purposeful and reader-focused writing. Invented spellings are acceptable in the composition stage, and handwriting skills are best practised when publishing a completed piece. Mini-lessons should take place at the beginning of a writing session, and spelling and punctuation should largely be self-monitored as children write; marking their text for items to be checked and corrected at the editing stage. Research shows that there is no evidence to link the formal teaching of grammar and improvements in children’s writing. Successful writing teachers know that, if grammar is to be understood in a meaningful way, it must be taught functionally and applied and examined in the context of real composition.

Teach Self-Regulation Strategies (10)

While all children will need guidance and advice at times, they need to know the self-regulating strategies which will help them to write confidently and independently, such as how to generate ideas, use planners and checklists, and have access to resources for editing and publishing. They should also be able to access these resources and writing material independently; freeing their teacher up to conduct pupil-conferences.

Being A Writer-Teacher (11)

Become a writer-teacher who writes for and with pleasure. Children gain from knowing that their teacher faces the same writing challenges that they do. Write and share in class your own pieces in relation to the projects you are asking the children to engage in, but be sure to maintain reciprocal relations when discussing and modelling your own writing processes and the exemplar texts you have written. Share the strategies that you really employ in your own writing is also seen as effective to instruction.

Pupil Conference: Meeting Children Where They Are (12)

A rich response to children’s writing is crucial. Many teachers use both written and verbal feedback. Research particularly emphasises the usefulness of ‘live’ verbal feedback, which is immediate, relevant and allows children to reflect on and attend to learning points while actually still engaged in the writing. This is seen as superior to ‘after-the-event’ written feedback. Conferences will be short and are most successful in a settled, focused and self-regulating classroom. Teachers give feedback initially on composition and prioritise those who are in most need of assistance. Writer-teachers are better able to advise and give feedback because they understand the issues children encounter when writing themselves.

Literacy For Pleasure: Reading And Writing Connecting (13)

Successful writing teachers know that children who read more, write more and better. A reading for pleasure pedagogy assists a writing for pleasure pedagogy since the reading of good texts available in school and in class libraries can provide children with models and suggest ideas and themes for personal writing projects. Successful writing teachers also know that reading aloud poems and whole texts to the class in an engaged way has a significant effect on children’s vocabulary and story comprehension, and increases the range of syntactic structures and linguistic features they use in their writing.

Successful Interconnection Of The Principles (14)

We cannot emphasise strongly enough that all these principles are powerfully interconnected and should be considered as such. As many studies show, they are critical to the effective teaching of writing. Where do you currently see your practice making links between these different principles and where is more development needed?

References:

Creating A Community Of Writers (1)

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Every Child A Writer (2)

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Reading, Sharing And Talking About Writing (3)

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Purposeful & Authentic Writing Projects (4)

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Explicitly Teach The Writing Processes (5)

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  • Harris, K. R. and Graham, S. (1996) Making the Writing Process Work: Strategies for Composition and Self-Regulation. Brookline, Massachusetts: Brookline Books.
  • Harris, K. R., Graham, S. and Mason, L. H. (2006) Improving the writing, knowledge, and motivation of struggling young writers: Effects of self-regulated strategy development with and without peer support. American Educational Research Journal 43: 295–337
  • Hoewisch, A. (2001) “Do I have to have a princess in my story?”: Supporting children’s writing of fairytales. Reading and Writing Quarterly 17: 249–277
  • Jasmine, J., Weiner, W., (2007) The Effects of Writing Workshop on Abilities of First Grade Students to Become Confident and Independent Writers In Early Childhood Education Journal, 35, (2) pp. 131-139
  • Langer, J. A. (2001). Beating the odds: Teaching middle and high school students to read and write well. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 837–880.
  • Larson, J. and Maier, M. (2000) Co-authoring classroom texts: Shifting participant roles in writing activity. Research in the Teaching of English 34: 468–497.
  • Lipson, M., Mosenthal, J., Daniels, P., Woodside-Jiron, H., (2000) Process Writing in the Classrooms of Eleven Fifth-Grade Teachers with Different Orientations to Teaching and Learning In Elementary School Journal. 101, (2), pp. 209-231
  • Goldstein, A., Carr, P., (1996) Can Students Benefit From Process Writing In NCES, 1, (3), p.96
  • Peterson, S. S. (2012) An analysis of discourses of writing and writing instruction in curricula across Canada. Curriculum Inquiry 42: 260–284
  • Rooke, J., (2013) Transforming Writing: Final Evaluation Report National Literacy Trust: London
  • Seban, D., Tavsanli, Ö., (2015) Children’s sense of being a writer: identity construction in second grade writers workshop In International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(2), 217-234
  • Sexton, M., Harris, K. R. and Graham, S. (1998) Self-regulated strategy development and the writing process: Effects on essay writing and attributions. Exceptional Children 64: 295–311
  • Taylor, M., (2000) Nancie Atwell’s “In the Middle” and the Ongoing Transformation of the Writing Workshop In The English Journal, 90,(1), pp. 46-52
  • Wyse, D., Torgerson, C., (2017) Experimental trials and ‘what works?’ In education: The case of grammar for writing In British Educational Research Journal, 43,(6), pp. 1019–1047

Scaffolding New Learning & Setting Writing Goals (6)

  • Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260–267.
  • Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41(3), 586–598
  • Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), 245–274.
  • Covington, M. V. (2000). Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: An integrative review. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 171–200.
  • Garrett, L., Moltzen, R., (2011) Writing because I want to, not because I have to: Young gifted writers’ perspectives on the factors that “matter” in developing expertise In English Teaching: Practice and Critique 165-180
  • Graham, S., Harris, K., Mason, L., (2011) Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students With Writing Difficulties. Theory Into Practice. Vol. 50 Issue 1, p20-27
  • Hmelo-Silver, C., Duncan, R., & Chinn, C. (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based and inquiry learning: A response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99–107.
  • Langer, J. A. (2001). Beating the odds: Teaching middle and high school students to read and write well. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 837–880.
  • Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Self-regulation through goal setting. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 212–247
  • Paratore, J. R., & McCormack, R. L. (2009). Grouping in the middle and secondary grades: Advancing content and literacy knowledge. In K. D. Wood & W. E. Blanton (Eds.), Literacy instruction for adolescents: Research-based practice (pp. 420–441). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2003). The role of self-regulated learning in contextual teaching: Principles and practices for teacher preparation (CIERA Report). Retrieved from http://www.ciera.org/library/archive/2001-04/0104parwin.htm
  • Pollard, A., Broadfoot, P., Croll, P., Osborn, M. and Abbott, D. (1994) Changing English in Primary Schools? The Impact of the Education Reform Act at KS1. London: Cassell
  • Reutzel, D. R. (2007). Organizing effective literacy instruction: Differentiating instruction to meet the needs of all children. In L. B. Gambrell, L. M. Morrow, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (pp. 313–434). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Rooke, J., (2013) Transforming Writing: Final Evaluation Report National Literacy Trust: London
  • Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2010). Teacher expectations and perceptions of student attributes: Is there a relationship? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 121–135.
  • Schumm, J. S., & Avalos, M. A. (2009). Responsible differentiated instruction for the adolescent learner. In K. D. Wood & W. E. Blanton (Eds.), Literacy instruction for adolescents: Research-based practice (pp. 144–169). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Schunk, D. H. (1990). Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 71-86
  • Schunk, D. H. (1996). Goal and self-evaluative influences during children’s cognitive skill learning. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 359–382.
  • Schunk, D. H., & Swartz, C. W. (1993). Goals and progress feedback: Effects on selfefficacy and writing achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(3), 337–354.
  • Seijts, G. H., Latham, G. P., Tasa, K., & Latham, B. W. (2004). Goal setting and goal orientation: An integration of two different yet related literatures. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 227–239.
  • Timperley, H. & Parr, J., (2009) What is this lesson about? Instructional processes and student understandings in writing classrooms, The Curriculum Journal, 20:1, 43-60
  • Vanderburg, R., (2006) Reviewing Research on Teaching Writing Based on Vygotsky’s Theories: What We Can Learn In Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22:4, 375-393

Reassuring Consistency (7)

  • Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260–267.
  • Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., Tarver, S. G., & Jungjohann, K. (2006). Teaching struggling and at-risk readers: A direct instruction approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
  • Hall, K., & Harding, A. (2003). A systematic review of effective literacy teaching in the 4 to 14 age range of mainstream schooling (Tech. Rep.). Research Evidence in
  • Education Library London Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education
  • Konrad, M., Helf, S., & Joseph, L. M. (2011). Evidence-based instruction is not enough: Strategies for increasing instructional efficiency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(2), 67–74.
  • Langer, J. A. (2001). Beating the odds: Teaching middle and high school students to read and write well. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 837–880.
  • Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2003). The role of self-regulated learning in contextual teaching: Principles and practices for teacher preparation (CIERA Report). Retrieved from http://www.ciera.org/library/archive/2001-04/0104parwin.htm
  • Rooke & Winchester (2013) Transforming Writing: Final Evaluation Report National Literacy Trust: London
  • Toppino, T. C., Cohen, M. S., Davis, M. L., & Moors, A. C. (2009). Metacognitive control over the distribution of practice: When is spacing preferred? Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 1352–1358.

 

Personal Writing Projects: Writing Everyday (8)

  • Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260–267.
  • Atwell, N., (2015), In the middle USA: Heinemann
  • Bruning, R., & Horn, C. (2000). Developing motivation to write. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 25-37
  • DfE (2012) What is the research evidence on writing? Education Standards Research Team, Department for Education: London
  • Dyson, H., (1997) Writing Superheroes: Contemporary Childhood, Popular Culture and Classroom Literacy, Columbia: Teachers College Press.
  • Dyson, A. H. (2003) Welcome to the Jam: Popular culture, school literacy, and the making of childhoods. Harvard Educational Review 73: 328–361
  • Gilbert, J., & Graham, S. (2010). Teaching Writing to Elementary Students in Grades 4-6: A National Survey. The Elementary School Journal, 110, 494-518.
  • Graham, L. (2001) ‘From Tyrannosaurus rex to Pokemon: autonomy in the teaching of writing’, Reading, Literacy and Language, 35(1):18–26.
  • Graham, S., Bollinger, A., Booth Olson, C., D’Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., McCutchen, D., & Olinghouse, N. (2012). Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers: A practice guide (NCEE 2012- 4058). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/PracticeGuide/writing_pg_062612.pdf
  • Grainger (Cremin), T., Goouch, K., & Lambirth, A., (2005) Creativity and Writing: Developing voice and verve in the classroom London: Routledge
  • Graves, D., (1983), Writing: Teachers & Children At Work USA: Heinemann
  • Higgins, S., Martell, T., Waugh, D., Henderson, P., Sharples, J., (Education Endowment Fund) (2017) Improving Literacy In Key Stage Two EEF: London
  • Konrad, M., Helf, S., & Joseph, L. M. (2011). Evidence-based instruction is not enough: Strategies for increasing instructional efficiency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(2), 67–74.
  • Langer, J. A. (2001). Beating the odds: Teaching middle and high school students to read and write well. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 837–880.
  • Olthouse, J., (2012) Why I write: What talented creative writers need their teachers to know In Gifted Child Today (35) 2: pp.117-121
  • Purcell-Gates, V., Duke, N. K., & Martineau, J. A. (2007). Learning to read and write genre-specific text: Roles of authentic experience and explicit teaching. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(1), 8-45. doi:10.1598/RRQ.42.1.1
  • Ranker, J. (2007) Using comic books as read-alouds: Insights on reading instruction from an English as a second language classroom. The Reading Teacher 61: 296–305
  • Reutzel, D. R. (2007). Organizing effective literacy instruction: Differentiating instruction to meet the needs of all children. In L. B. Gambrell, L. M. Morrow, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (pp. 313–434). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Smith, F., (1988) Joining the literacy club Heinemann: Oxford

 

Balancing Composition With Transcription (9)

  • Atwell, N. (2014) (3rd Ed) In the Middle: Writing, reading, and learning with adolescents Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Bissex, G. (1980) GNYS AT WRK: A child learns to write and read. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Calkins, L. (1980) When children want to punctuate: basic skills belong in context. Language Arts 57, pp. 567-573.
  • Calkins, L. (1998) The art of teaching writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Cremin, T., Myhill, D., (2012) Creating Communities Of Writers London: Routledge
  • DfE (2013) The National Curriculum For England DfE: London
  • Dombey, H., (2013) Teaching Writing: What the evidence says UKLA argues for an evidence-informed approach to teaching and testing young children’s writing UKLA: Leicester
  • Fearn & Farman (1998) Writing Effectively: Helping Students Master the Conventions of Writing Pearson: USA
  • Graham, S., Berninger, V., Abbot, R., Abbott, S. & Whittaker, D. (1997) The role of mechanics in composing of elementary school students: a new methodological approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 1, pp. 170-182.
  • Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007) Writing Next: Effective Strategies To Improve Writing Of Adolescents In Middle School & High Schools Alliance For Excellent Education
  • Grainger (Cremin), T., Goouch, K., & Lambirth, A., (2005) Creativity and Writing: Developing voice and verve in the classroom London: Routledge
  • Hall, N. (2001) Developing understanding of punctuation with young readers and writers. In J. Evans (ed.) The Writing Classroom: Aspects of writing and the primary child 3-11. London David Fulton.
  • Knapp, M.S. and Associates (1995) Teaching for Meaning in High-Poverty Classrooms. New York: Teachers’ College Press.
  • Lambirth, A. (2016). Exploring children’s discourses of writing. English in Education, 50(3),p. 215-232.
  • Louden, W., Rohl, M., Barrat-Pugh, C., Brown, C., Cairney, T., Elderfield, J., House, H., Meiers, M., Rivaland, J., & Rowe, K.J. (2005). In teachers’ hands: effective literacy teaching practices in the early years of schooling. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 28, 3, pp. 173-252
  • McQuitty, V., (2014) Process-Oriented Writing Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Evidence of Effective Practices from the Research Literature In writing & pedagogy 6(3) 467–495
  • Medwell, J., Wray, D, Poulson, L. & Fox, R. (1998) Effective Teachers of Literacy. Exeter: The University of Exeter for the Teacher Training Agency.
  • Medwell, J. & Wray, D. (2007) Handwriting: what do we know and what do we need to know? Literacy 41, 1, pp. 10-16.
  • Smith, F. (1982) Writing and the Writer. London: Heinemann.
  • Tompkins, G. E. (2011). Teaching writing: Balancing process and product. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
  • Warrington, M., Younger, M. & Bearne E. (2006) Raising Boys’ Achievement in Primary Schools. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Wyse, D., Torgerson, C., (2017) Experimental trials and ‘what works?’ In education: The case of grammar for writing In British Educational Research Journal, 43,(6), pp. 1019–1047

 

Teach Self-Regulation Strategies (10)

  • Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), 245–274.
  • Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., & Stevens, D. D. (1991) Making strategies and self-talk visible: Writing instruction in regular and special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 28(2), 337–372.
  • Graham, S. (2006). Strategy instruction and the teaching of writing: A meta-analysis. In C. McArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp.
  • 187–207). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Graham, S., Harris, K., Mason, L., (2011) Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students With Writing Difficulties. Theory Into Practice. Vol. 50 Issue 1, p20-27
  • Graham, S., Harris, K., Mason, L., (2014) Improving the writing performance, knowledge, and self-efficacy of struggling young writers: The effects of self-regulated strategy development Contemporary Educational Psychology Volume 30, Issue 2, p. 207–241
  • Johnson, E., Hancock, C., Carter, D, Pool, J., (2012) Self-Regulated Strategy Development as a Tier 2 Writing Intervention Intervention in School and Clinic Vol 48, Issue 4, pp. 218 – 222
  • Hillocks, G. (1984). What works in teaching composition: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. American Journal of Education, 93(1), 133–170.
  • Hillocks, G. (1986). Research on written composition: New directions for teaching. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
  • Lane, K., Graham, S., Harris, K., Little, M., Sandmel, K., Brindle, M., (2010) The Effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Second-Grade Students With Writing and Behavioral Difficulties The Journal of Special Education Vol 44, Issue 2, pp. 107 – 128
  • McQuitty, V., (2014) Process-Oriented Writing Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Evidence of Effective Practices from the Research Literature In writing & pedagogy 6(3) 467–495
  • Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2003). The role of self-regulated learning in contextual teaching: Principles and practices for teacher preparation (CIERA Report). Retrieved from http://www.ciera.org/library/archive/2001-04/0104parwin.htm
  • Perry, N. E., & Drummond, L. (2002). Helping young students become self-regulated researchers and writers. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 298–310
  • Perry, N. E., Hutchinson, L., & Thauberger, C. (2008). Talking about teaching self- regulated learning: Scaffolding student teachers’ development and use of practices that promote self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 47(2), 97–108.
  • Perry, N. E., & VandeKamp, K. J. O. (2000). Creating classroom contexts that support young children’s development of self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 33(7), 821–843.
  • Regan, K., & Berkeley, S. (2012). Effective reading and writing instruction: A focus on modelling. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(5), 276–282.
  • Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Influencing children’s self-efficacy and self- regulation of reading and writing through modelling. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23(1), 7–25. doi:10.1080/10573560600837578
  • Zumbrunn, S, Bruning, R., (2013) Improving the Writing and Knowledge of Emergent Writers: The Effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol.26(1), p.91-110

Being A Writer-Teacher (11)

  • Andrews, R. (2008). The case for a National Writing Project for teachers. Reading: CfBT Educational Trust
  • Atwell, N. (2015). In the Middle: Writing, reading, and learning with adolescents, (3rd Ed) Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Aulls, M. W. (2002). The contributions of co-occurring forms of classroom discourse and academic activities to curriculum events and instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 520–538
  • Barrs, M. and Cork, V. (2001) The Reader in the Writer Case Studies in Children’s Writing. London: CLPE.
  • Block, C. C., & Israel, S. E. (2004). The ABCs of performing highly effective think-alouds. The Reading Teacher, 58(2), 154–167
  • Brooks, G. W. 2007. “Teachers as Readers and Writers and as Teachers of Reading and Writing.” The Journal of Educational Research 100 (3): 177–191.
  • Calkins, L.M. (1986) The Art of Teaching Writing, Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Corbett, P., Strong, J., (2011) Talk For Writing Across The Curriculum. Maidenhead: Open University Press
  • Cremin, T. 2006. “Creativity, Uncertainty and Discomfort: Teachers as Writers.” Cambridge Journal of Education 36 (3): 415–433.
  • Cremin, T., S, Baker., (2010). Exploring teacher-writer identities in the classroom: Conceptualising the struggle. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 9 (3) pp. 8–25.).
  • Cremin, T., & Oliver, L., (2017) Teachers as writers: a systematic review In Research Papers in Education, 32:3, 269-295
  • Dix, S., and G. Cawkwell. 2011. “The Influence of Peer Group Response: Building a Teacher and Student Expertise in the Writing Classroom.” English Teaching: Practice and Critique 10 (4): 41–57.
  • Gardner, P. 2014. “Becoming a Teacher of Writing: Primary Student Teachers Reviewing their Relationship with Writing.” English in Education 48 (2): 128–148
  • Gennrich, T., and H. Janks. 2013. “Teachers’ Literate Identities.” In International Handbook of Research on Children’s Literacy, Learning and Culture, edited by K. Hall, T. Cremin, B. Comber, and L. Moll, 456–468. Oxford: Wiley.
  • Grainger (Cremin), T., Goouch, K., & Lambirth, A., (2005) Creativity and Writing: Developing voice and verve in the classroom London: Routledge
  • Graves, D. (1983). Writing: Teachers and Children at Work, Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Graves, D., (1991) Build A Literate Classroom USA: Heinemann
  • Morgan, D. N. 2010. “Preservice Teachers as Writers.” Literacy Research and Instruction 49: 352–365.
  • Regan, K., & Berkeley, S. (2012). Effective reading and writing instruction: A focus on modelling. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(5), 276–282.
  • Rooke, J., (2013) Transforming Writing: Final Evaluation Report National Literacy Trust: London
  • Street, C. 2003. “Pre-service Teachers’ Attitudes about Writing and Learning to Teach Writing: Implications for Teacher Educators.” Teacher Education Quarterly Summer 33–50.
  • Whitney, A. 2008. “Teacher Transformation in the National Writing Project.” Research in the Teaching of English 43 (2): 144–187.
  • Whitney, A. 2009. “Writer, Teacher, Person: Tensions between Personal and Professional Writing in a National Writing Project Summer Institute.” English Education 41 (3): 236–259.
  • Woodard, R. L. 2015. “The Dialogic Interplay of Writing and Teaching Writing: Teacher Writers’ Talk and Textual Practices Across Contexts.” Research in the Teaching of English 50 (1): 35–59.

Pupil Conference: Meeting Children Where They Are (12)

  • Bayraktar, A., (2012) Teaching writing through teacher-student writing conferences In Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 pp.709 – 713
  • Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), 245–274.
  • Calkins, L. (1998) The art of teaching writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Carless, D., (2007) Conceptualizing pre‐emptive formative assessment In Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice14 (2)
  • Ebsworth, M., (2014) The Many Faces of Feedback on Writing: A Historical Perspective In Writing & Pedagogy 6(2) 195-221
  • Elliott, V., Baird, J., Hopfenbeck, T.N., Ingram, J., Thompson, I., Usher, N., Zantout, M., Richardson, J. & Coleman, R. (2016) A marked improvement? A review of the evidence on written marking. [https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/public/files/Publications/EEF_Marking_Review_April_pdf] Education Endowment Foundation.
  • Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., & Stevens, D. D. (1991) Making strategies and self-talk visible: Writing instruction in regular and special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 28(2), 337–372.
  • Fisher, R., Jones, S., Larkin, S. & Myhill, D., (2010) Using talk to support writing London: SAGE
  • Gibson, S., (2008) An Effective Framework for Primary-Grade Guided Writing Instruction In The Reading Teacher, 62(4), pp. 324–334
  • Graham, S., Harris, K., & Hebert, M. A. (2011). Informing writing: The benefits of formative assessment. A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act report. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.
  • Jean, E., Tree, F., & Clark, B., (2013) Communicative Effectiveness of Written Versus Spoken Feedback In Discourse Processes, 50:5, 339-359
  • Larson, J. (1999) ‘Analyzing participation frameworks in a kindergarten writing activity: The role of overhearer in learning to write’, Written Communication,16: 225−257
  • Lipson, M., Mosenthal, J., Daniels, P., Woodside-Jiron, H., (2000) Process Writing in the Classrooms of Eleven Fifth-Grade Teachers with Different Orientations to Teaching and Learning In Elementary School Journal. 101, (2), pp. 209-231
  • McQuitty, V., (2014) Process-Oriented Writing Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Evidence of Effective Practices from the Research Literature In writing & pedagogy 6(3) 467–495
  • Parr, J., Jesson, J., McNaughton, S., (2009) Agency and Platform: The Relationships between Talk and Writing In The SAGE Handbook of Writing Development
  • Rooke, J., (2013) Transforming Writing: Final Evaluation Report National Literacy Trust: London
  • Rosenthall, B. D. (2006). Improving elementary-age children’s writing fluency: A comparison of improvement based on performance feedback frequency (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.
  • Timperley, H. & Parr, J., (2009) What is this lesson about? Instructional processes and student understandings in writing classrooms, The Curriculum Journal, 20:1, 43-60
  • Wiliam, D., (2011) Embedded Formative Assessment Solution Tree Press: USA

 

Literacy For Pleasure: Reading And Writing Connecting (13)

  • Barrs, M., and V. Cork. (2001) The reader in the writer: The links between the study of literature and writing development at Key Stage 2. London: CLPE
  • Book Trust, The (2015) The Write Book [Available Online: https://fileserver.booktrust.org.uk/usr/resources/1308/the-write-book-final-evaluation.pdf ] London: The Book Trust
  • Compton-Lilly, C., (2006) Identity, childhood culture, and literacy learning: A case study In Journal of Early Childhood Literacy6 (1) 57-76
  • Corden, R. (2007) Developing reading–writing connections: The impact of explicit instruction of literary devices on the quality of children’s narrative writing. Journal of Research in Childhood Education 21: 269–289
  • Corden, R. (2010). Developing Reflective Writers in Primary Schools: Reflecting from Partnership Research. Educational Review 54:3, 249-276
  • Cremin, T., (2014) Building Communities Of Engaged Readers: Reading For Pleasure London: Routledge
  • Cremin, T. & Myhill, D. (2012). Writing Voices: Creating Communities of Writers. London: Routledge.
  • Dorfman, L. R. and Cappelli (2017)(2nd Ed). Mentor Texts: Teaching Writing Through Children’s Literature, K-6. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press.
  • Dressel, J. H. (1990) The effects of listening to and discussing different qualities of children’s literature on the narrative writing of fifth graders. Research in the Teaching of English 24: 397–414.
  • Dyson, A. H. (1997). Writing superheroes: Contemporary childhood, popular culture and classroom literacy. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Dyson, A. H. (2003) Welcome to the Jam: Popular culture, school literacy, and the making of childhoods. Harvard Educational Review 73: 328–361
  • Glenn, W., (2007) Real writers as aware readers: Writing creatively as a means to develop reading skills in Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 51(1) pp. 10-20
  • Graham, S., McKeown, D., Kiuhara, S., & Harris, K. R. (2012). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for students in the elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology104(4), 879-896.
  • Hall, K., & Harding, A. (2003). A systematic review of effective literacy teaching in the 4 to 14 age range of mainstream schooling (Tech. Rep.). Research Evidence in Education Library London Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education.
  • Heller, M., (1999) Reading-Writing Connections: From Theory To Practice London: Routledge
  • Hoewisch, A. (2001) “Do I have to have a princess in my story?”: Supporting children’s writing of fairytales. Reading and Writing Quarterly 17: 249–277
  • Kirmizi, F., (2009) The relationship between writing achievement and the use of reading comprehension strategies in the 4th and 5th grades of primary schools In Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences (1) pp.230–234
  • Konrad, M., Helf, S., & Joseph, L. M. (2011). Evidence-based instruction is not enough: Strategies for increasing instructional efficiency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(2), 67–74.
  • Laman, T. T., & Van Sluys, K. (2008). Being and becoming: Multilingual writers’ practices. Language Arts, 85(4), 265–274.
  • Langer, J. A. (2001). Beating the odds: Teaching middle and high school students to read and write well. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 837–880.
  • Larson, J. and Maier, M. (2000) Co-authoring classroom texts: Shifting participant roles in writing activity. Research in the Teaching of English 34: 468–497.
  • Lewison, M., & Heffernan, L. (2008). Rewriting writers workshop: Creating safe spaces for disruptive stories. Research in the Teaching of English, 42, 435-465
  • McQuitty, V., (2014) Process-Oriented Writing Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Evidence of Effective Practices from the Research Literature In writing & pedagogy 6(3) 467–495
  • Morgan, D. N. 2010. Preservice Teachers as Writers. Literacy Research and Instruction 49: 352–365.
  • Murray, D. (1999). Write to learn (6th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.
  • Nelson, N., & Calfee, R., (1998) ‘The reading-writing connection viewed historically’, in N. Nelson and R.C. Calfee (eds), The Reading Writing Connection: Ninety-Seventh Yearbook of the National Society of the Study of Education, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp.1−52.
  • Ofsted (2011) Excellence in English London: Ofsted
  • Pantaleo, S., (2010) Developing Narrative Competence Through Reading and Writing Metafictive Texts, Literacy Research and Instruction, 49:3, 264-281
  • Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2003). The role of self-regulated learning in contextual teaching: Principles and practices for teacher preparation (CIERA Report). Retrieved from http://www.ciera.org/library/archive/2001-04/0104parwin.htm
  • Parr, J., Jesson, J., McNaughton, S., (2009) Agency and Platform: The Relationships between Talk and Writing In The SAGE Handbook of Writing Development
  • Parr, J. M., & Limbrick, L. (2010). Contextualising practice: Hallmarks of effective teachers of writing. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), 583–590.
  • Ranker, J. (2007) Using comic books as read-alouds: Insights on reading instruction from an English as a second language classroom. The Reading Teacher 61: 296–305
  • Reutzel, D. R. (2007). Organizing effective literacy instruction: Differentiating instruction to meet the needs of all children. In L. B. Gambrell, L. M. Morrow, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (pp. 313–434). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Seban, D., Tavsanli, Ö., (2015) Children’s sense of being a writer: identity construction in second grade writers workshop In International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(2), 217-234
  • Williams, C., (2017) A journey into the cogs of an author’s brain’: a critical study of children’s responses to metafictive devices in picturebooks [Unpublished thesis] University Of Cambridge

 

Successful Interconnection Of The Principles (14)

  • Dombey, H., (2013) Teaching Writing: What the evidence says UKLA argues for an evidence-informed approach to teaching and testing young children’s writing UKLA: London
  • Gadd, M., (2014) ‘What is critical in the effective teaching of writing?‘ The University Of Auckland
  • Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007) Writing Next: Effective Strategies To Improve Writing Of Adolescents In Middle School & High Schools Alliance For Excellent Education
  • Graham, S., McKeown, D., Kiuhara, S., Harris, K., (2012) A Meta-Analysis of Writing Instruction for Students in the Elementary Grades In Journal of Educational PsychologyVol. 104, No. 4, 879–896
  • Hall & Harding (2003) A systematic review of effective literacy teaching in the 4 to14 age range of mainstream schooling Institute OF Education: London
  • Higgins, S., Martell, T., Waugh, D., Henderson, P., Sharples, J., (Education Endowment Fund) (2017) Improving Literacy In Key Stage Two EEF: London
  • Hillocks, G. (1986). Research on written composition: New directions for teaching. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
  • Ings, R., (2009) Writing Is Primary: Final research report. London: Esmee Fairbairn Foundation
  • Medwell, J., Wray, D., Poulson, L. & Fox, R. (1998). Effective teachers of literacy. A report commissioned by the UK Teacher Training Agency.
  • Morizawa, G., (2014) Nesting the Neglected “R” A Design Study: Writing Instruction within a Prescriptive Literacy Program Unpublished: University of California, Berkeley

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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